Arms Warrior PvP Guide


Arms Warrior PvP Guide

Human Female Arms Warrior in Season 11 Gear

Updated for Warlords of Draenor

Warriors in Warlords have lost a number of abilities, several having to do with crowd control. (Fortunately, so has everyone else.) Various abilities have also changed. See our Warrior changes in WoD post for all the changes, though some will be noted below.

Also see our Warrior PvP page for some general notes on keybinds and fighting tips.

For Arms in instances and raids see: Arms PvE


The Arms Warrior

Other Warrior Guides


The PvP Arms Warrior, Briefly

Undead Warrior in Season 11 gear

Fight me!

A brief overview of the Arms Warrior for PvP


  • see below for abilities, a build, and glyphs


  • Gem for Str (Red “bold” gems) or Str/Crit, whereever possible.
  • More gems



  • Any will do, but…
  • Alliance: Human (escape, bonus versatility) or Worgen (Spint, Crit.)
  • Horde: Orc (burst, Stun resistance) might be “best.”
  • Undead can escape effects and have a small passive heal and DPS add.
  • More Race info

Get Leveled Faster, even in Warlords


Arms PvP Build

Changing talents is easy and works just like changing glyphs. Bring up your talent page in-game, click the row you want to change, spend the indicated dust/powder/tome, and pick the new talent. Your trainer can also reset all of your talents at once.

Most of the Warrior talents have at least situation use. Depending on what you’re doing at the moment you might be swapping talents regularly. Our picks are checked, Best talent, but feel free to swap and experiment.

Arms PvP Talents in Warlords of Draenor


Tier 1, level 15

How do you like to Charge? More often or more effectively?

  1. Juggernaut – Charge every 12 seconds. Never have to wait a long time for the next charge.
  2. Best talent Double Time – Charge twice, bang bang, but then has a 20 second recharge (which can hurt.) That double charge can be really useful, for example: you charge the mage, he blinks, you charge again. (Only one of the charges builds Rage.)
  3. Warbringer – Stuns the target for 1.5 seconds, instead of rooting. Great if you need that extra stun. Longish cooldown isn’t fun as it hurts your mobility.

Tier 2, level 30

Which heal depends on your game. Second Wind is used by many, Impending Victory heals you right now.

  1. Best talent Enraged Regeneration – An active heal that’s probably not big enough for emergencies, unless you’re Enraged, but it IS usable while stunned.
  2. Second Wind makes it harder to finish you off and is a passive – one less button to think about. Solid healing and one less button makes it a favorite with many people. If you’re going to be stun-locked then this, and Defensive Stance, will make you hard to take down.
  3. Impending Victory – A cheap attack with a decent heal right now, which is why it’s the pick. Shorter cooldown than Enraged Regen, but not usable while stunned or against people out of range.

Tier 3, level 45

  1. Best talent Taste for Blood – Gain rage as your Rend does damage.
  2. Sudden Death – a chance for your auto-attacks to cause your next Execute to cost no rage and be usable regardless of the target’s health. Since you’re wielding a slow two-hander this will result in very few procs, nevermind how sweet those procs might be.
  3. Slam – whack the opponent, with your second and third whacks cause increasing damage and costing increasing amounts or rage, then it resets.

Tier 4, level 60

Get Leveled Faster, even in MoP

Area Effects – Stuns or Damage?

  1. Best talent Stormbolt is a ranged stun and does lots of damage to targets immune to stuns.
  2. Best talent Shockwave – not as sexy as Bladestorm, but it damages and stuns all enemies in front of you.
  3. Dragon Roar – Knock all nearby enemies back a bit and damage them.

Tier 5, level 75

All are good, it depends on who you’re with and who you’re fighting.

  1. Best talent Mass Spell Reflection – Everyone in your group gets Spell Reflection. This could be annoying to the opposition when fighting multiple enemies.
  2. Best talent Safeguard – Intervene towards a party member, saving his butt.
  3. Vigilance protects a party member for 12 seconds, reducing their damage taken. The Warrior does not take that damage (though he used to.)

Tier 6, level 90

  1. Avatar – You transform into an unstoppable colossus for 20 sec, increasing your damage dealt and causing your attacks to generate extra Rage. While transformed you are immune to movement impairing effects.
  2. Best talent Bloodbath – for 12 seconds your attacks and their multistrikes do additional damage as a bleed over 6 seconds and also slow the opponent.
  3. Best talent Bladestorm for lots of damage. What’s better than a Spinning Warrior of Doom?

Tier 7, level 100

  1. Best talent Anger Management for duels, 2s, 3s, etc. Reducing cooldowns is always good.
  2. Ravager for 5s and BG/RBGs. Keeping people in the area for the ten seconds might be an issue, hence better for BGs.
  3. Siegebreaker replaces Intimidating Shout. Slams the target, knocking them back and down.


Useful Glyphs for Arms Warriors

Note that certain glyphs are exclusive with each other. This means that only one of them can be loaded at any one time. For example, the glyphs of Heroic Leap and Death from Above.

Major Glyphs

The first two are pretty important, the rest of situational, but can be very nice is the right place.

Minor Glyphs

These are all pretty much cosmetic, but there are one or two with some value.


Arms Warrior Stats for PvP

Warlords of Draenor did away with Hit, Expertise, Resilience, PvP Power, and reforging. You now have an “attuned stat,” which is mastery, and which comes from your level 90 Weapon Mastery ability, giving you 5% more Mastery from all sources.

You have two new stats, Multistrike and Versatility.

  • Stat Priority: Str > Mastery > Crit > Multi = Vers > Haste

In order of priority:

  • Strength – improves everything you need to do. By far your best stat.
  • Mastery adds to the damage of your Mortal Strike, Colossus Smash, and Execute.
  • Crit, the more the better. There is a soft cap of 40% (good luck reaching it) due to Overpower already having +60% crit chance. Your Crit plays very well with Colossus Smash and Mortal Strike (Enraged.) and your recently buffed Deep Wounds
  • Mastery – adds extra swings, but is weak. You don’t want it.
  • Haste changed in patch 5.2 in that Warriors not get 50% added benefit from the stuff. Crit and Mastery are still better, but Haste is no longer really bad. Adds to white damage, due to more swings over time, and indirectly to your bleed damage (potentially more ticks over time,) plus your rage regenration.


Gems for Arms Warrior PvP

Warlords PvP gear has no gem sockets at this time, so there is no gemming. If you’re using PvE gear you’ll find that sockets are pretty rare. All WoD gems will fit into any WoD sockets that are available.

For gear under item level 600

A good gem strategy to match sockets is this:

Note that the “perfect” gem cuts have the same stats as the regular gem. One of the other is likely to be cheaper, by far. Save your gold and grab the cheap one (they’re shown in the table, below.) If your cash flow is bad, such that you can’t buy the gems, then you should check out these gold secrets.

Gemming in Warlords PvP

Well, you aren’t. Gemming for PvP, that is. Maybe later.

  • Gem sockets are few and far between, and on PvP gear none are actually available, but perhaps they will be as the expansion progresses. They have a (small) random chance to appear on Raid gear, so perhaps they’ll also appear on PvP gear and other items as well. Also, there are no meta gems or sockets, there are no socket bonuses, and all sockets are “prismatic,” which means that they will take any available gem.
  • The gems themselves are actually available. They are all prismatic, meaning they fit into any socket. None have Int, they all have secondary stats (Mastery, etc.) Apparently there are no Meta sockets or gems.
  • Older (Mists of Pandaria) gems work until item level 600, but the item squish cut them down a bit. What used to be 160 Int is now 10, for example. The new Prismatic gems are 50 points of Mastery or whatever.
  • Older gems (Mists of Pandaria and lower) that used to code for Hit now do Crit, gems that had Expertise are now Haste.

In Warlords, Assuming sockets ever become available, gem for Mastery or Crit.

Gem Priorities
Prismatic Greater Mastery Taladite: +50 Mastery
Mastery Taladite: +35 Mastery
Greater Critical Strike Taladite: +50 Crit
Critical Strike Taladite: +35 CritGreater Versatility Taladite: +50 Versatility
Versatility Taladite: +35 VersatilityIn the Mists: Delicate Primordial Ruby: 10 Agility
Mists of Pandaria Gems, for gear under ilevel 600.
Meta Reverberating Primal Diamond: +14 Str & Increased Crit Effect
Red Bold Primordial Ruby: +10 Str
Yellow Fractured Sun’s Radiance: +20 Mastery
Smooth Sun’s Radiance: +20 Crit
Orange Inscribed Vermilion Onyx: +5 Str and +10 Crit
Perfect Inscribed Tiger Opal: +5 Str and +10 Crit
Skillful Vermilion Onyx: +5 Str and +10 Mastery
Fine Vermilion Onyx: +10 Parry and +10 Mastery
Blue Rigid River’s Heart: +20 Crit
Green Sensei’s Wild Jade: +10 Crit and +10 Mastery
Purple Etched Imperial Amethyst: +5 Str and +10 Crit
Perfect Etched Roguestone: +5 Str and +10 Crit
Cogwheel Requires an engie helm, such as this.
Quick Tinker’s Gear: +38 Haste
Smooth Tinker’s Gear: +38 Crit
Fractured Tinker’s Gear: +38 Mastery


Arms Warrior Enchants

In Warlords, unlike with gems, enchants are available. However they are only for your weapons, neck, cloak, and rings and they are only for secondary stats, there are no Str enchants.

For gear under 600, the other enchants are still available.

Short on gold? Most of the enchants below have similar enchants available, of lesser value, for less cash. We’ve linked to a couple of these. Check with the rep vendor or the Auction House for others. If you want to buy the best enchants, fund all of your alts, donate to the guild, etc., but don’t have the cash, then see what the Tycoon Addon can do about about fixing your poverty.

Weapon Warlords:


Rings Warlords:

Neck Warlords:

Cloak Warlords:


Enchant Cloak – Accuracy: +12 Crit rating

Other enchants, for gear under item level 600.
Shoulders Greater Tiger Fang Inscription: +15 Str and +5 Crit
Chest Enchant Chest – Glorious Stats: +9 to all Stats
Bracers Enchant Bracer – Exceptional Strength: +15 Str
Enchant Bracer – Mastery: +25 Mastery
Gloves Enchant Gloves – Super Strength: +25 Str
Enchant Gloves – Superior Mastery: +25 Mastery
Belt Livingsteel Belt Buckle: Sockets your belt, pop in the best gem.
Leggings Angerhide Leg Armor: +19 Str & 11 Crit rating
Boots Enchant Boots – Greater Precision: +12 Crit rating
Enchant Boots – Pandaren’s Step: +10 Mastery and Slight run speed increase.


Arms Spec Abilities

  • All abilities can be used in any stance, though they may work better in a particular stance. You will likely be using Battle Stance most of the time, for the Rage generation value.
  • Defensive Stance, with its 25% damage reduction, will be used anytime you’re feeling enough pressure.
  • Bladestorm was buffed in 5.4, so might be worth using.
  • Your Thunderclap ability also applies Deep Wounds.
  • You do not need a shield  to use Shield Wall and Spell Reflection

Warriors lost some stuff in WoD, including your banners and Symbiosis (which would let you and your Druid borrow an ability from each other.) Here are your Arms specific abilities as they stand in Warlords. Dead or moved abilities are crossed out.

Arms Spec Abilities
7 Execute – Hard strike, costs up to 40 Rage, usable only on low health enemies.
7 Rend – An old ability is back. Opponent bleeds over 18 seconds.
10 Mortal Strike – Your basic Bread and Butter strike, reduces healing and causes your opponent to bleed for 15 seconds.
10 Seasoned Soldier (P) – More damage with 2-handers.
14  Thunder Clap – blasts all nearby enemies and reduces their movement speed. Causes all targets to bleed for 15 seconds.
18 Slam – This is now a level 45 talent.
26 Whirlwind – Attack everything within 8 yards.
30 Overpower
30 Taste for Blood – this is now a level 45 talent.
46 Blood and Thunder – now Prot only.
50 Plate Specialization (P) – More Str is your reward for wearing all plate.
56 Die by the Sword – Big survivability boost for a few seconds.
60 Sweeping Strikes – Your melee attacks strike an addition opponent.
80 Inspiring Presence – Your entire group now gets 3% Versatility.
80 Mastery: Strikes of Opportunity has been changed to… Mastery: Weapon Master – More Mortal Strike, Colossus Smash, and Execute damage.
81 Colossus Smash – Smash the target and your following attacks ignore its armor for a brief time. Causes your opponent to also take a bit more damage for 30 seconds.
Shield Barrier – Absorbs damage for 6 sec, costs up to 60 Rage.
81 Sudden Death
83 Rallying Cry – 15% Health increase for 10 sec, 3 min cooldown.
87 Recklessness – Greater chance to crit with specials (eg: Mortal Strike.) 3 min cooldown.
90 Weapon Mastery – 5% more Mastery from all sources.

Arms Perks

After level 90 you will be getting Perks instead of Abilities, so no additional cluttering of your action bars. Perks are enhancements to existing abilities and are learned randomly from the list of remaining perks, ever two levels from 92 to 100.

So, not necessarily in order, you will eventually get:

  1. Enhanced Rend – more damage if Rend is on your target
  2. Enhanced Sweeping Strikes – lasts 5 seconds longer
  3. Improved Die by the Sword – additional 10% damage reduction
  4. Improved Recklessness – additional 15% crit while Recklessness is active.


Stuns and Control and Blood and “How to”

While Warlords zapped a number of abilities and changes or moved others, keep in mind that everyone is in the same boat. Charge in, smash and rend, and you’ll get it worked out.

Stunning and Terrifying Moves

Blood, Blood, and Still More Blood

Other Abilities


  • Colossus Smash – CS – This provides moderate damage but more importantly debuffs allowing you to bypass all armor for 6 seconds which increases damage potential. It also increases physical damage received by the target by 4% for 6 seconds.
    In an ideal world you would want this debuff up all the time but this is not realistic. The use of CS is essential for any burst attempts. Shifts you into Battle Stance.
  • Mortal strike– MS, 20 rage – adds a bleed and a healing debuff.
  • Slam – Talent, 10 rage – This ability is where your burst will come from and provides our highest damage. It is your primary way to dump rage and will be your go to ability for kill attempts. Generally you will want to only be using slam when you have built up between 75 and 100 rage. Slam benefits heavily from CS and our offensive CDs such as Recklessness and Avatar.
  • Execute – 10-40 rage – This can only be used when the target is below 20% health and is on the same GCD as Slam which is 1.5 seconds. This is your hardest hitting strike if the opponent is in the 20% range.
  • Thunder Clap – TC – 10 Rage – AOE Ability that applies lower damage but also slows and applies the Deep Wounds bleed to multiple targets. If you have 2 targets in range apply deep wounds with this. If not MS will do it for single target.
  • Deep Wounds – Passive from MS and TC. – Make no mistakes. Deep wounds will provide more damage in every Arena you step into than any other ability. You want to bleed every target if possible (unless it screws up CC). So MS on cooldown to maintain your bleeds on single targets and TC on multiple targets.
  • Heroic Strike is not really worth the effort.

Your basic “rotation” will be something like this:

  • Generate enough rage
  • Colossus Smash > Mortal Strike > Whirlwind (Or Slam, )
  • Execute when opponent’s health is in range.
  • Thunder Clap if fighting more than one.
  • while keeping Rend up at all times. When Rend falls off, it deals an extra 4500 damage along with it’s normal 1774 tick.
  • Execute takes priority over any ability if in range (enemy is 20% or lower.) It is basically touch of death right now.


Gearing Up for Arms PvP

PvE or PvP Gear? In Warlords of Draenor the PvP gear has too ratings. One of the PvE and the second, much higher, is for PvP. For example, the honor gear is 620/675, that is: 620 for PvE and 675 for PvP. So you will want to be in the PvP gear as soon as possible.

There are three tiers of PvP gear in Warlords Season 1:

  • Primal Aspirant, which is 600/660 (+6 if Warforged.)
  • Primal Combatant (honor gear) which is 620/675
  • Primal Gladiator, which is 660/690

See above for enchants.

The section below will briefly cover gearing up. (See our Warrior PvP Gear page for more detail. )

Basic Gearing up at 90

  1. Your questing greens. Get rid of them.
  2. Buy the crafted malevolent gladiator gear from the Auction House or a friendly Blacksmith. Why? Even at ilevel 476 it’s a big step up from the questing gear, plus comes with PvP Power, so is better than comparable PvE gear.  (See our gold guide if you can’t afford this gear.) There are no weapons (or jewelry, though there is one trinket) in this set, so grab the best PvE two hander you can find.
  3. Or work the Timeless Isle for the 496 PvE set. Either way will get you started at level 90 into Draenor.

Gearing up at level 100

In the Battlegrounds and in Ashran (the new PvP zone) you will win honor points, some Conquest points, and find the occasional strongbox. The latter may have pieces of Aspirant or Honor gear, maybe even conquest. So while you grind BGs for the points to buy your honor gear you will also be winning some items.

Which order to by gear is you call, of course, but there is a recommended order which will help you to get “up to speed” faster than otherwise.

Stats: Each armor/weapon slot has two items available, giving you a bit of choice in stats. Ideally you’ll have Mastery & Crit, but that won’t be possible for all items. There is another item available when you have the conquest points and “Revered” with your leader’s faction, which isn’t any higher level, but which has different stats. For example:

The honor weapons have no “points earned” requirement, while the Conquest weapons do. They require 7,250 accumulated points before you can buy them.

The big (expensive) armor pieces (chest, legs, head) have more stats (Str, etc.) than the lesser pieces, so will give you more power. Note that gem slots are not available and only the weapon, cloak, neck, and rings can be enchanted.

  1. Honor: Buy your weapon(s) first, then a big piece and the gloves. That gives you the two piece set bonus.
  2. Conquest: Reverse the order. Buy a big piece & gloves, then the weapon.
  3. Both: Buy the other two big pieces for the 4 piece set bonuse
  4. “On Use” DPS trinket
  5. Shoulders
  6. Back, neck, rings, because they can be enchanted.
  7. bracers and boots
  8. Escape trinket. If you do not already have one then this should be first.


Warrior Races

Pandaren Arms Warrior

Pandaren Arms Warrior

Go with what you like, even if it’s Draenei. None of the racials are that awesome, though the Humans being able to use two DPS trinkets is rather nice. Orcs are a solid Horde choice. Pandarens can be either Horde or Alliance.


  • “Bouncy” for less falling damage. Might be just the thing when you jump or get tossed off a cliff.
  • Better buffs from food.
  • Better rest XP, for faster leveling.
  • Melee range “stun” lasts 4 seconds. It takes you out of combat and breaks on damage. Definitely useful.
  • Choose either Horde or Alliance when leaving the starting area.
  • Good with cooking.


Short version: Go with Human or Worgen.

  • Human:
    • Their racial is a PvP trinket, meaning that you don’t need to actually buy one for that escape. This allows using two DPS trinkets instead.
    • Humans also get 1% expertise with Axe and Sword, which is nice Vs those dodgy types.
  • Gnome:
    • An escape is always nice and their small size really is an advantage due to being a it harder to see and a bit harder to click on (if you’re fighting poeple who click targets. )
    • Expertise with small weapons is useless to you.
    • Gnomes are good with engineering and there are some useful engie gadgets.
  • Dwarf:
    • Stone Form washes away bleeds and other effects and provides some damage reduction.
    • Dwarven Ranged Weapon Expertise is useless to you.
    • Good with Archeology.
  • Night Elf:
    • 2% dodge is nice, and Shadowmeld has some definite situational use, such as lurking in wait for unsuspecting targets. S”meld will also break incoming spells if your timing is excellent.
  • Draenei: Tentacles???
    • Other than the tentacles you get a +1% Hit, which makes optimizing stats a bit easier,
    • and you get a small heal, which is always nice.
    • Good with Jewelcrafting.
  • Worgen:
    • 1% crit isn’t bad and neither is the Sprint ability.
    • Good with Skinning, which adds some crit rating.


Short version: Orc or Undead.

  • Orc:
    • Blood Fury is a DPS boost and their stun reduction helps.
    • Expertise with Axes helps to crush the opposition.
  • Tauren:
    • War Stomp is a nice stun, great for getting nearby casters to stop casting.
    • The Tauren health bonus is about equal to three Stam gems at 90.
    • Tauren are good with Herbalism and that skill’s Lifeblood is a small heal with a Haste effect.
  • Troll:
    • Berserking is a nice attack speed increase and
    • Da Voodoo Shuffle is nice when your trinket is on CD
    • Their Ranged Weapon Expertise is useless for you.
  • Goblin:
    • 1% haste is not of much interest to you.
    • Rocket Jump is a nice escape to set up for another charge.
    • Good with alchemy.
  • Blood Elf:
    • Arcane Torrent is a useful silence and restores a bit of Rage.
    • Good with Enchanting.
  • Undead:
    • Will of the Forsaken breaks fear, etc.
    • Touch of the Grave (a life drain and heal) replaces Underwater Breathing. It is a passive ability and will add a bit to your overall damage and healing.
    • Cannibalism let’s you eat players you just killed.


Arms Warrior Professions

All of the professions provide some buff or self-only ability, in addition to any nifty items that can be created by that profession. If you really want to do the min-max thing then you can level a profession just for the buff, but that’s a lot of gold to spend for a little gain.

Most of the professions add an average of about 320 Str or so. Since gems with secondary stats are twice the value of those with primary stats (320 Crit Vs 160 Str, for example) Blacksmithing might be the most valuable profession if you’re just looking for the buffs.

Engineering has a lot of useful toys and the very useful Synapse Springs wrist gadget.

With you get a gain of +160 Str or +120 Crit with each JC gem, over the standard gems.

Arms Professions
Blacksmithing gives two extra gems slots. Since gems with secondary stats have twice the value of gems with primary stats Blacksmithing might be a very valuable profession. For example, you’ll be able to socket he two gems for 640 Crit instead of 320 Str, for examlpe. You can create keys, sharpening stones, useful gear (such as your stater PvP gear,) and cool looking gear for Transmogrification.
Engineering has lots of interesting toys, some of which have situational use, and Synapse Springs, which increases Str by 1940 for a short time. If you take this use a macro to activate it along with other short term buffs.
Jewelcrafting Make nicer gems for your own use.
Inscription Shoulder enchant adds 520 Str and 100 crit. Make all your own glyphs and make staves for your caster alts/buddies.
Alchemy More effect from your own potions. Adds 320 Str and an extra hour to your main flask, also about 30% more stats and an extra hour from any other flask/elixir. Put a few potions of healing, Strength, Rage, Crit, etc. on your bars. You get better effect from your own potions than the other guy does.
Enchanting Enchant both rings, for a total +320 Str gain.
Tailoring Cloak enchant sometimes adds 4k AP for 15 seconds.
Leatherworking Bracer enchant adds 500 Str.
Skinning provides 480 crit rating
Herbalism Small heal and 2880 Haste for 20 seconds
Mining 480 Stamina


Leveling Your Arms Warrior Faster

Get Leveled Faster Ok, you’re not yet high enough level to raid or do the Arenas. Maybe you’re even level 1. Have a plan to hit the level cap ASAP and get into that yummy end-game content?

Or will you just aimlessly wander about the world, trying to decide where to go next? To make your job a lot easier you should consider an expert leveling guide for your 1-90 blast (or 100, when Warlords of Draenor comes out.)

You will never again wonder about where to go or what to do and your leveling will be faster, much faster.

Dugi’s  nearly automates the whole leveling path, from start to finish, for your Warrior. Carve your way through the world and the content at a surprisingly crisp pace. Pick your starting point and the guide automatically updates and advances as you complete quests, sets a waypoint arrow automatically, and includes the important quest info.

Take a break to do some PvP leveling, instances, or whatever and when you come back to the guide it will figure out what level you are and pick up from there. Automatically.  It doesn’t matter if you’re brand new to WoW or you’re decked out in Heirlooms and using Recruit a Friend, Dugi will get you to the level cap faster.

Plus, Dugi’s is always updated for the latest patches and expansions, including Warlords of Draenor

Grab your copy here and get leveled!

Share this post:

  7 Responses to “Arms Warrior PvP Guide”

  1. does gag order still work on players or has that been changed?

  2. Correct me if I am wrong but isn’t one of the Orc racial’s a bonus to the use of all Axe weapons? Or does this not count in PvP?

  3. Nice guide however I suggest altering the link provided in the Inscription comments from Intellect to the Str version of shoulder enchants, to fit in with the class better.

    [(Face palm…) yeah, Warrior have no use for brains. I’ll have that fixed in a minute, thanks. -Rog.]

  4. great guide its just the talents aren’t updated to 5.1. Gagorder dosent work in pvp and second wind is 10x better. also shockwave’s better for PvP

 Leave a Reply



You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>